CCTV stands for Close Circuit Television otherwise known as Video Surveillance. In this process, a set of surveillance video cameras send the signals to a selected number of TV monitors. Unlike TV broadcast, the signals are not sent to the open air. CCTV has now -a – days found its usage in almost all areas of life that needs monitoring such as banks, schools, casinos, airports, certain public areas, military installations, and convenience stores.
The gradual evolution of the CCTV Surveillance System is interesting. The current CCTV uses the most advanced form of recording the images on to the devices called DVRs (Digital Video Recording) or in the case of IP cameras, directly to a server, either on-site or offsite.DVRs recording is possible for propably many years along with the options for different image qualities, performance and other features such as Motion Detection and Security email alerts.
The first CCTV device was designed by the German engineer Walter Bruch in the year 1942 . Later, the development of VCR Technology was a milestone in the evolution CCTV. Before VCR technology, the constant monitoring was needed as there was no way to record the images or video. VCR technology enabled the recording and erasing possible and subsequently, led to the wide usage of CCTV Surveillance Systems worldwide. Another milestone in the advancement of this technology is the invention of Multiplexing, a technology that allows the recording by many cameras at once, also time lapse and motion only recording. Due to the increased savings of time and money by this technology, CCTV usage has become more common now- a -days. Recently, CCTV technology has taken another brand new direction due to the introduction of internet based products and related technologies.
Areas of CCTV Application:
Prevention of Crime:
Various studies conducted by different countries agree that CCTV has helped in detection and conviction of offenders. The UK police heavily depend on the CCTV recordings to fight crimes. It also plays a significant role in fighting terrorism.
Sri Lanka commenced it s first CCTV surveillance operations in it’s capital city, Colombo on 29, 2010, 09. The system is using 105 close circuit cameras and 28 LCD screens. Senior DIG Gamini Navaratne is the head of the project which cost around 300 million rupees. The project was assisted by Sri Lanka Telecom, The Ceylon Electricity Board, and the Colombo Municipal Council.
Usage of CCTV in the Industries:
In some chemical industries, in certain areas where humans cannot work due to the harmful chemicals CCTV is used for supervision.Special cameras are used in such environments to measure the temperature of the chemical processes.
In most of the advanced countries traffic- monitoring systems use CCTV to control congestion and accidents. The UK Highways Agency has a publicly owned CCTV network of over 1,200 cameras covering the British motorway and Trunk Road Network.
CCTV in Shops and Business Orgnizations:
CCTV is widely used in shops in order to prevent theft. It may also be used to monitor the employee behaviour in the shops. There are some software that can be integrated with the CCTV to study some particular operations of the employees. This is used to monitor certain important actions such as financial statements or operations with cash thereby bringing to light any abnormal behaviour of the employees.
The 6 Simple Steps To Buy The Right CCTV Security Camera System:
Before going for a CCTV Surveillance System decide the following 6 factors:
- What do you want to monitor?
Small area or a larger outdoor area. Decide the area of the space. Larger areas need mobile, zoomable cameras with HD capability.
- Do the cameras need to be hidden or visible?
If your aim is to catch the thieves then the cameras are best kept hidden. But if you are using the cameras to enhance your business then they are best kept visible.
- How many number of cameras do you need?
The next question is how many cameras you need 1,2,8 or 16. If you are monitoring a large area then drawing a blue print of the areas to be monitored and the number of camera views will be convenient. You need a full set of security cameras rather than a single camera to monitor a large area.
- What basic features of the cameras do you need?
Cameras can either be wired, wireless or Networked; produce low or high quality images or colour or black & white
Most of the wired security cameras today are both indoor and outdoor and have night vision inbuilt. Means, they have Infra Red cut-filter inbuilt which enables night vision.Wired cameras come with either BNC or DIN terminations or connection ports and they need video extension cables.
Wireless cameras are gaining popularity today as they are cost-effective and the latest digital wireless cameras are secure, output high quality video and audio and free of interference from household devices.
IP or Network Cameras can be accessed from remote locations over the Internet along with the option of recording videos directly to your computer or to a Network Video Recorder (NVR)
Image Quality and Type Produced By The Cameras:
The image type and quality produced by the cameras depend on two types of chips called, CMOS or CCD (Charge Couple Device). The CMOS technology produce a low quality video and has poor light sensitivity.These cameras are cheaper than the CCD type cameras which are medium priced and capable of producing a good quality video.
Black & White or Color Cameras:
This depends on the lighting conditions of your environment. If the light condition is poor then a Black & White Camera is the good choice where as a Color Camera is recommended for an environment with a good light condition. Many high resolution color cameras come with the IR cut-filter for inbuilt night vision.
The Resolution of The Camera:
The sharpness of the image depends on the resolution of the camera. Entry level camera resolution is 330 lines, high resolution cameras producing more than 400 lines.
More Advanced Features:
The cost of the cameras go up based on more advanced features. You have to decide which are the features your security system need. Basic cameras are fixed at one position but some mid range cameras can pan automatically where as some cameras such as PTZ can do pan, tilt and zoom for a good coverage. Some cameras can take simple videos only in day light but expensive cameras can work in night vision. The other features are web access and motion detection.
- Selecting the Video Display Monitor:
You need to select a monitor that matches the resolution of your CCTV Camera System.
- Selecting the CCTV Camera Recorders:
DVR (Digital Video Recorder) is the best option because it records onto hard drives.
Hope this will give you a basic understanding of how to choose the right CCTV Camera Surveillance System for you business or home needs. If you need more help please call our friendly sales team for a discussion or a free quotation.